But effective interaction with researchers and with the knowledge broker of TransForum was crucial as was TransForum funding. Product ingredients are inventoried throughout the supply chain and evaluated for impacts on human and ecological health. Human health requires more than the control of infectious diseases. World production of paper and paperboard. Adapted from Gertsakis et al. The global economic crisis in 2008 and the financial uncertainty since then have depressed market demand for goods and their packaging in developed countries. The Banned Lists contain those chemicals and substances that are banned for use in Cradle to Cradle Certified™ products as intentional inputs above 1000 ppm. The mission for paper and paperboard suppliers also involves supporting their customers’ efforts in seeking a competitive edge whilst contributing to a more sustainable society. As environmental, social and economic concerns continue to grow, packaging will play an increasingly important role in the sustainability agenda of industry. There are stringent tests required to demonstrate compliance with the guidelines. Intense competition amongst branded goods manufacturers and retailers who seek to gain a competitive edge through using packaging, which better engages consumers and meets their needs. Growing concerns of consumers, brand owners and governments to address supply chain concerns regarding pack integrity, brand authenticity/product provenance, food safety, waste, product quality, counterfeiting, product tampering and theft. Biodegradable polymers include starch-based polymers and biodegradable polyesters. If as predicted biofuels are used to satisfy 20% of the growing demand for oil products, there will (in his view) be nothing left to eat; to grant enormous subsidies for biofuel production is morally unacceptable and irresponsible. The Ministry was clearly risk averse as they had to face European regulators when satisfying European environmental guidelines. Still, despite heroic efforts by all concerned, a basic conflict persists between the needs of the natural environment and the needs of the corporate industrial enterprise. There is no ‘away,’ so no one can any longer claim to throw anything away. The environmental implications of maximising the use of renewable or recycled materials are less clear-cut than might at first appear. Use of the concept of ecosystems goods and services stimulated stakeholders to think on a more regional level and in a more integrated and sustainable way about the De Wijers project area. Now there is a need to translate the challenges presented in this report into strategic and operational objectives within a Master Plan for the project area. And it requires active community attention to the social determinants of health including income, education, living conditions, and the corrosive dynamics of social isolation, racism, inequality, and injustice. 10.2), ready meals and organic sausages and poultry. J. Bouma, ... H.C. van Latesteijn, in Advances in Agronomy, 2011. As can be seen from Table 7.2, production in Asia has significantly increased by over 10% between 2002 and 2010. It suggests that industry must protect and enrich ecosystems and nature’s biological metabolism while also maintaining a safe, productive technical … Recycled materials have already been processed once, so reprocessing is a cleaner and more energy-efficient process. The paper and paper-based packaging industries are well placed to meet future commercial requirements by responding to evolving marketing, economic, supply chain and sustainability goals. Bulk shipping also reduces the environmental impacts of transport, bringing significant CO2 savings as fewer containers and thus ship voyages are required. Closed loop recycling of plastics in food-contact packaging is restricted because of concerns about contamination. A mill needs steam-heated drying rolls plus electricity for drying paper and board. Several workshops were carried out at neutral locations in De Wijers and facilitated by unbiased facilitators. This has important implications for packaging designers. A major barrier to recycling glass in the UK is the shortage of clear cullet. In nature, when a tree or animal dies or creates waste, that waste breaks down and becomes nutrients for another process. It is used to manufacture containers in one of two ways: by co-extruding the container with a layer of recycled resin sandwiched between two layers of virgin resin; by moulding mono-layer bottles with up to 100% recycled resin. Clear glass is the most recyclable because it can be used in clear, green and amber glass, whereas green glass has only limited markets, such as wine bottles. This estimate includes energy required for the entire product life cycle, starting with raw materials in the ground and ending with either final waste disposition in a landfill or recycled material collection, processing, and return to the primary manufacturing process. You may need to redesign some elements in order to improve recyclability, e.g. Banned Lists were thus created separately for biological and technological nutrients to allow for the use of some substances like lead or cadmium in materials where exposure to humans or the environment is highly unlikely to occur. More information on glass and plastics recycling is also provided below. The roles of committed entrepreneurs and knowledge brokers are crucial to keep the process moving and so is long-term financing. In 1998, Dutch researchers devised a mineral accounting system (MINAS) for the government (boxes 6 and 7) to satisfy the nitrate guideline in a major research effort applying K3 level knowledge (box 6). They also recognise the importance of strategies such as the purchase of carbon credits during the ‘transition period’. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) governs the use of recycled resins in food, drug and cosmetic packaging. Apparent per capita consumption of all types of paper and paperboard in 2000 and 2010. The seventh criterion (developing packaging that is physically designed to optimise materials and energy) has long been the objective of many packaging manufacturers, as much for economic as environmental reasons. When the materials are safe, then the consumer is safe, and perhaps more importantly, the ecosystem is safe. Both the level of participation and the outcome of the workshops were satisfactory. Results showed that, comparing 10 different produce items such as apples, carrots, grapes, oranges, onions, tomatoes and strawberries, the RPCs required 39% less total energy, produced 95% less total solid waste and generated 29% less total greenhouse gas emissions. The PLA production system in 2006 emitted 0.27 kg CO2 eq./kg PLA and used 27.2 MJ/kg PLA of fossil energy, reductions of 85 and 50%, respectively, compared with their 2003 PLA eco-profile data. caps, labels or glues. Products optimized for the … Air emissions are another problem, in particular the emission of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Cradle to Cradle follows the example of nature and considers waste as a resource. And the biological nutrients can be disposed of harmlessly and decompose into the soil. The food and beverage industry is the largest user of packaging generally. Overall, the paper package had less environmental impacts than the PS. In life cycle assessment (LCA) comparisons between fossil fuel and biofuel, the method used, especially the allocation method, determines outcomes, and is widely disputed within that research community (Huppes and Ishikawa 2007). This new approach has generated a host of innovative ideas including biomimicry, green chemistry, clean production, and zero waste. The results of several studies have been reviewed by Denison (1996), who concluded that systems based on recycled production plus recycling offer substantial system-wide or life cycle environmental advantages over systems based on virgin material plus either incineration or landfilling. There are many types of degradable polymers that are suitable for different applications and disposal environments, so definitions are once again very important. These processes may involve specific materials, plastics and barrier materials, such as aluminium foil, to extend their packaging applications and the shelf life of the products they contain. Recycling systems are becoming widespread, so an important waste reduction strategy is the specification of recyclable materials for the main components of the packaging. Thus, packaging innovations, which serve to better protect product, reduce wastage and extend product shelf life – whilst meeting the trend for using more sustainably sourced materials – have an important role to play in contributing to the development of a more resource efficient and sustainable future. Recycled HDPE is also being used for packaging, in mono-layer and co-extruded bottles. His analysis suggested that PS foam, with an extension to plastics in general, should be given more even-handed consideration relative to paper in packaging applications than is currently the case. Later, farmers refusing to inject manure were taken to court where substantial fines were issued as represented in Fig. Clarity about the goals of recycling also leads to the conclusion that waste reduction can be an even better route to the same destination (Ackerman 1997). Brands currently on the market include TDPA® manufactured by EPI (2007), and d2wTM manufactured by Symphony Environmental Technologies (n.d.). One of the most widely used of these is Mater-BiTM, which is manufactured from corn starch by Novomont in Italy (Novamont, n.d.). 2). Modern, ‘sanitary’ landfills are built to avoid or minimise surface and groundwater contamination through careful siting and use of clay and plastic liners. This requires the glass to be colour-sorted and free of contaminants. 2: The need for emphasis on comprehensive systems analyses, such as the life cycle assessment. By contrast cradle-to-grave (in the authors’ view) refers to a company taking responsibility for the disposal of goods it has produced, but not necessarily putting the constituent product components back into service. There are a number of strategies that can help to achieve this (see Box 10.3). Closed-loop recycling refers to the recycling of a particular material back into a similar product; e.g., the recycling of glass bottles back into new glass bottles. Life-cycle analysis (or life-cycle assessment) (LCA) is a technique used to assess environmental impacts associated with all stages in the manufacture, use and disposal of a product (i.e. A recent application is beverage bottles, for example Biota Brands (US) for their spring water (Biota, n.d.) and Naturally Iowa (2007) for its natural and organic milk. Two basic arguments support this expanded view: In the modern era, humans have learned anew that their well-being is dependent upon the mosaic of biological systems that make up the biosphere. Key drivers of innovation, which are illustrated with examples throughout this chapter, include: Adverse world economic climate stimulating market demand for packaging solutions, which can increase operational efficiency in the supply chain and save costs, thereby improving profitability. Soil life is strongly influenced by soil management by farmers such as plowing, application of fertilizers and pesticides, crop choice, and rotation. 10.2. G.L. Nevertheless, there are no guarantees that even with the best design and management, no hazardous materials will leach out of the slowly decomposing rubbish. including secondary and tertiary packaging). It seems unlikely that companies which take an evidence-based LCA approach to sustainable packaging will opt for any of the above approaches, and the SPC needs to demonstrate that the whole cradle-to-cradle concept is more than a catchy slogan. Product ingredients are inventoried throughout the supply chain and evaluated for impacts on human and ecological health. Adapted from Grant et al. Oxo-biodegradable polymers (often called ‘degradable polymers’) combine a conventional polymer such as polyethylene with a controlled degradation master-batch additive. Track record of case study 1: NFW (see text). Third-party certification allowed for the research to benefit from a consistent verification method applied to the models, as well as an impartial and independent evaluation. Biological and technical cycles result in beneficial values and do not result in waste. Nevertheless, rapidly growing recognition of the urgent nature of the problem – and new ways of conceptualizing, understanding, and responding to it – give reason for hope. Thus, packaging materials, which utilise biomass or other forms of renewable energy in their manufacture, can also assist governments in meeting their renewable energy and carbon reduction targets. Cradle to Cradle Model Nature's processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms. Degradable polymers may be beneficial if a product is likely to be littered and if enhanced degradation is likely to reduce the aesthetic impact or health risks to wildlife. By contrast cradle-to-grave (in the authors’ view) refers to a company taking responsibility for the disposal of goods it has produced, but not necessarily putting the constituent product components back into service. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The reduction in GHG emissions was calculated for recycling rates of the postconsumer residues in two scenarios: I (only paperboard recycling) and II (total laminate recycling). R. Coles, in Trends in Packaging of Food, Beverages and Other Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), 2013. Starch-based polymers are biodegradable and compostable. Cradle to cradle models industrial resources to biological nutrients and explains a continuous transformation this nutrient. One of the barriers to the use of starch-based polymers has always been its price premium compared with alternatives, although this price gap appears to be closing. This framework sets out requirements stipulating, for example, that certification requires Grade A-quality data to be used to support at least 70% of emissions, Grade B to support a maximum of 25%, and C a maximum of 5. If more than one material is required and they are not compatible in the same recycling process, design them to be easily separated by the consumer. This framework seeks to create production techniques that are not just efficient but are essentially waste free. Marketing and commercial considerations should also be reconciled with economy in the use of materials and energy, and the environmental effects of production and use of materials. The environmental cooperative organized many meetings among its farmers to share experiences (at K1 level). Note that upward arrows from the upper K line toward G and E are one way. The use of cullet as a raw material reduces the need for mining of sand, soda ash, limestone and felspar. Cradle to Cradle is an international system for the development and certification of sustainable economic feasibility. The imbalance in the supply and demand for green glass is of particular concern, with the waste stream containing almost 1 million tonnes of green glass annually yet the UK’s container furnaces producing just 400 000 tonnes of it. Cullet also melts at a lower temperature than virgin materials and therefore saves a significant amount of energy (see Table 10.1). Environmentalists such as Lester Brown, president of the Earth Policy Institute, question the morality of turning a foodstuff into packaging when so many people in the world are hungry. 2 by a horizontal arrow between the years 1994 and 2006. Material Health: Biological and Technical Metabolisms. This is the goal of the cradle to cradle … Industry must protect and enrich ecosystems and nature's biological metabolism while also maintaining a safe, productive technical metabolism for the high-quality use and circulation of organic and technical nutrients. The authors observed that ‘creating rigid hierarchies of alternative waste management options and dictating solutions without generally acceptable scientific evidence can be sub-optimal’. It has become apparent in recent decades that problems of environmental degradation are not principally technical in nature; they result from choices, and the overriding question is, “Who gets to decide?”. Valuable for their performance qualities and typically ‘non-renewable’, technical nutrients are designed to circulate safely and perpetually through cradle-to-cradle product life cycles of manufacture, use, recovery and remanufacture. It verified the footprint models and data as certified to the standards mentioned and also ensured quality assurance of the traceability, assumptions, and activity data assessed. Regarding the first criterion, whether or not packaging is beneficial is a subjective judgement; today all packaging on the market has to be safe and healthy for individuals and communities throughout its life cycle and this is reflected in the regulations such as (in the USA) the Code of Federal Regulations and, in particular, Volume II Parts 100–199 which includes lists of approved additives in packaging such as plasticisers. A series of papers on issues relating to packaging and the environment are produced by Europen (2016). Before promoting the widespread use of renewable materials, it is necessary to consider the total life cycle environmental impacts, including those of forestry and agricultural activities in the production of paper or polymers from biomass (Swift and Baciu 2006; Robertson 2008). The LCA did not include the transportation, distribution and utilisation stages of the products; the disposal of both packages was considered to be landfill. The paper and paperboard industries are developing packaging materials, processes and systems, which are flexible and responsive to the increasingly complex mix of marketing, technological and logistical requirements of their customers. In cradle-to-cradle production, all material inputs and outputs are seen either as technical or biological nutrients. World production percentage of paper and paperboard by region between 2002 and 2010. An increasing number of companies are specifying degradable or biodegradable polymers for packaging. It is therefore imperative in their view to begin to consider additional instruments that guide industry towards sustainable practices as maximum cullet use rates are approached. The total environmental impact of production of packaging takes into account the types and sources of raw materials, the energy needed to procure them, to manufacture the packaging material, to convert the material into packages, the amount of waste created during production, the energy needed to handle and use the packs, and the energy efficiency of the transport methods used (Smith and White, 2000). In Cradle to Cradle, the authors present a manifesto calling for a new industrial revolution, one that would render both traditional manufacturing and traditional environmentalism obsolete. This framework seeks to create production techniques that are not just efficient but are essentially waste free. There’s a certain lack of flexibility in the C2C design that might make it difficult for a manufacturer to make a product line more varied or diverse. Of an estimated 4500 landfills operating in the United States in 1993, only 127 had gas-to-energy operations (Denison, 1996, p. 215). 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